22.214.171.124 Internal hardware components of a computer
A computer is made up of many individual components.
Some components include:
- Main Memory
- Address Bus
- Data Bus
- Control Bus
- I/O Controllers
The processor is a component within a computer which performs all of the computation and calculation. It can be thought of the "processing" part of a brain.
Main Memory (RAM)
The main memory in a computer stores data temporarily for use by the processor.
This "bus" is a set of wires which identifies the address that is being targeted by the CPU.
This bus sends and returns data to and from all the components which may require data.
A set of wires which determines the state which the main memory acts as, such as read or write.
A component which interacts with other parts of the system._Video Copyright **In One Lesson**_
Von Neumann Architecture
The Von Neumann Architecture is an architecture of computing where both data used for programs, and the programs themselves are stored within the same main memory.
- Easier to handle
- CPU has to wait for instructions to arrive, then data
- Data can be accidentally interpreted as a program
It can be represented in a "Three box model". The diagram represents the data bus in which all three components, the CPU, Main Memory and I/O all communicate on.
The Vonn Neumann architecture is the architecture most alike our computers today.
The Harvard Architecture has separate memory stores and busses for data and programs.
- CPU can simultaneously fetch instructions and programs
- Hard to program for
- More space is required, as there are two busses and stores
Types of CPU
There are two types of CPU - CISC, or
Complex Instruction set Computing, and RISC, or
Reduced Instruction set Computing.
Main differences include:
Number of instructions
- RISC has less instructions than CISC. CISC CPUs have more "complicated" instructions, so can achieve some tasks using less operations.
- CISC CPUs will need to combine multiple instructions to perform the same task.
- As CISC CPUs have more instructions, more silicon is required to support this.
- RISC CPUs commonly run with a lower clock speed compared to CISC CPUs
- CISC CPUs consume more energy compared to RISC CPUs.